$3.00 per Annum.

—c NOVEMBER. 1905. single copies, 25 Cents

AMERICAN ETERINARY RE

EDITED AND PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY

Prof. A. LIAUTARD, M.D., V. Member of the Central Society of Veterinary Medicine (Pi } Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (England). Foreign Corresponding Member of the Academy of Medicine Brucelles (Belgityue).

Prof. ROSCOE R. BELL, D.V.S., an» ROBERT W. ELLIS, D.V.S.

WITH THE COLLABORATION OF

Prof. W. J. COATES, M.D., D.V.S., New York- | Prof. M. H. REYNOLDS, University of Minnesota, American Veterinary C ollege. | St. Anthony Park, Minn. Prof. O. SCHWARZKOPF, D.V.M., U.S. Army. | WM. H. DALRYMPLE, M.R.C.V.S., Veterinarian Prof. P. J. CADIOT, of the Alfort School, France. | enya sy Experiment Station, Prog, We He WmrraMss V- 8 Uresldent Xew | p, auruvn HeGaes, Pu. D, D. ¥. M..Govern- Ithaca, N. Y. MS ae es = = Ss. eens, See City Veterinary Col- | University of Penn. etc., Philadelphia, Pa. exe, Kansas City, Mo. | L.A. MERILLAT, V. S., Chi Vv > Col- M. H. McKILLIP, M.D., V.S., of McKillip Vetert- | _& 4, MFRILUAT, V. S., Chicago Veterinary Co nary College, Chicago, Ill. D. E. SALMON. M.D.V., former Chief U. 8. Bu- Joun J. REpP, V.M.D., Sec'y A.V.M.A., Phila- | reau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C. delphia, Pa. | Prof. VERANUS A. MOORE, New York State Wm. HERBERT Lows, D. V.S., President A.V. | Veterinary College, Ithaca, N. Y. M. A., Paterson, N. J. 4 | RICHARD P. LYMAN (Harvard), Hartford, Conn.

And several! others,

CONTENTS. PAGE PAGE

Editorial.—European Chronicles.,... 775 the B!adder of a Steer.—Tetanus Treat- Dr. Salmon’s Successor. . 786 ed by Intra-Cerebral and Intra Rachid- Ven Behring’s ** Cure” for Tubercu- ian Inject'ons of Antitetanic Serum.—

Se eel aaa 729 Prophylaxy of Epizootic Abertion in The A. V. M.A. Goes to Connecticut Cows.—Pulmonary and Cardiac Echi- in 1906 . 790 sasrente, i * > Pn x Laws Governing Veterinary:Practice, 790 preg meng og | tam thy See ob ee Orieinal Articles.—The Social Stand- a Cow—Expulsion of the Fcetal Remains ing of the Veterinarian in America, by the Intestine. ey 22. ATEBOr TRUBS. «26 a ccccese cece 791 | Italian Review Stable Ventilation. By M. H. Rey- Prolapsus Uteri in a Cow—It is Fixed in nolds.... Sl the Vagina —The Bone of the Nose of Serotherapy of Infe tions Diseases of Cattle.— Rachidian Analgesia with Domestic Animals. By Prof. E. Le- Tropococaine.—Hysterocele and Indura- , he _ 8 tin of the Neck of the Uterus in a Cow. clainche Re eee Multiple Carcinoma in a Slut.—Prolap- Foot-and Mouth Disease. oe sns of the Rumen Through the Genital i.) é Passages in a She Goat. Reports« of Caen ~ A Fe ew Cases Treat- Army Veterinary sie entoneicants e@ With Anti-streptococcic Serum. Bibliography ; By J. G Parslow.. 816 | Society Meetings Rabies ina Horse. By P. V. Weaver 8&4! | Minmesste Veterinary on : rs As:ociation.—Keystor e Veterinary Me d-

Surgical Items.... ical Association.—Massachus+tts Veter-

Correspondence... | inary Association —Society of Compara-

Obituary. .. j tive Medici-e of the New York State

Laws Governing Veterinary Prac- Veterinary College.—Ontarlo Veteri-

tice 85! nary Medical Soclety.—Veterinary Med-

The Story the Germs Told. ical Society of the University of Pennsyl-

Rogers vania. French Reyiew Vv ee Medical Association Meetings Publishers’

Sureical Treatment of Hyeroma ‘of ‘the Fetlo. k.—Thirty- ‘four Litres of Urine in

‘The AMERICAN VETERINARY REVIEW is issued on the Ist of each ‘month. Manuscript and copy for insertion should be received by the 20th of the preceding month to insure insertion in the next month's namber. Volume commences with April number.

( Nommenteations relating to business (subscrip- tions, advertisements, and remittances),should be addressed to

Communications for publication or in relation ROBERT W. ELLIS, D.V.S., | ROSCOE R. BELL, D.V.S.,

thereto, should be addressed to

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European Exchanges, books for —e and personal letters should be addressed to - LIAUTARD, M D.,V. M., 14 Avenue de!’ Opera, Paris, France.

‘Satoh at tthe Post Office at New York as meson Class Matter.

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AMERICAN VETERINARY REVIEW.

NOVEMBER, 1905.

EDITORIAL.

EUROPEAN CHRONICLES. BRUNOY, FRANCE, September 18, 1905.

VIII. INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY CONGRESS.—As this will reach the REVIEW, our friends will expect that some news would appear in relation to the great international event which has just taken place, the VIII. International Veterinary Congress. And yet I am obliged to postpone my chronicle on this until next month. Although I was not able to attend the meeting, I was in hope to obtain sufficient information to say something, as I had taken my precautions to get newspapers or medical journals, and went so far as to request a friend to write me an article for the REVIEW. All have failed to realize.

I have, however, something to say. Ever since the Con- gress was announced, the REVIEW published all the documents, notices and circulars that I received from the Secretary of the Congress, and our American friends have been told how they could become members by the payment of about four dollars, and in that way secure a copy of the comptes rendus and of the papers read. It seems, however, that my information did not reach all who now think the comptes rendus and papers are worth having, and so as to secure them they ask me what to do. I do not know if there will be extra volumes printed by the Congress, but at any rate those who wish to get one will do well to write to Professor Dr. Etienne de Ratz, Budapest VII, Rottenbiller Utcza 23, Hungary. That is the only way I can see to get out of trouble.

THE VON BEHRING METHOD OF VACCINATION.—Early in

775

776 EDITORIAL.

July the Secretary of the Commission instituted to test the value of the vaccination method of von Behring, reported that at that date the results seemed to assume a pretty marked as- pect. Among the animals which had received the virus on June 15 by venous injection, those that had been vaccinated had pre- sented no reaction after the injection, while among the control animals the tuberculous infection was evident and manifested by loss of flesh, rapid respiration, congh and elevated tempera- ture. With the animals which had received a subcutaneous injection the results were only a slight tumefaction among the vaccinated at the point of injection, and on the contrary on the witnesses there was the apparition of relatively large tumors at the same point.

As all the animals had received the injection of the virus on June 15 I decided that after three months some marked changes could be observed in the animals, and yesterday (Sept. 14) I ex- amined the cattle. To the report that I have just given I will add that the vaccinated animals, tested by jugular injection, are in splendid condition and that to all appearances they are in perfect health. For the animals of control of that section, 35 per cent. have died with tuberculosis, and those that remain alive are no doubt affected. Among the animals of the other lot, those that were injected by the skin, whether in the vaccinated or the witnesses, I found that all, at the point of vaccination, had a swelling varying in size and in shape, with, however, this difference : in the vaccinated the swelling is more or less spher- ical and hard, while in the control subjects it is in all manifestly larger, some being as big as a small child’s head, and all are suppurating ; in one the abscess has ulcerated, and hasa dis- charge by two spots. Four animals, two vaccinated and two witnesses, have been put aside, in a separate barn, with a bull affected with tuberculosis, so as to test the result of contagion by cohabitation. So far there is nothing to say of the results.

Are these conditions encouraging? Yes, perhaps for the vaccinated, inoculated by venous injection ; but for those which after three months are still carrying lesions on the skin from

EDITORIAL. V77

the injection? At any rate, the post-mortem will tell all about it. All the living animals will be slaughtered by the end of October, and we will know.

* ke: *

THE CUGUILLERE SERUM.—The number of specifics which have been and are yet recommended for the cure of tuberculosis, is very large, and their true value has not been fully demon- strated, as the examination, after post-mortem, is the only way by which the result can be positively established. It seems, however, that the treatment by the serum of Dr. Cuguillére dif- fers from those which I refer to. In a previous chronicle I spoke of this new treatment, and last September, while record- ing two recoveries that I had found in the Progrés Vétérinaire, I mentioned the fact that two other diseased animals had been placed under treatment, and that I would later on give the re- sult. Here it is.

In another number of Progrés the records of the post-mortem are given and the bacteriological examinations of the lesions are made public. Dr. Martin-Roux, a bacteriologist in one of the hospitals of Paris, made the examination. In one letter he writes: “. ... Iean say that there is a well-marked process of recovery by sclerosis, and that there is a very large number of phagocytes preceding the sclerosis. In other words, they at- tack the bacilli and when those are destroyed, sclerosis makes the cicatrix of recovery.” In another letter where he gives a description of his work and of what he has found in the lungs, in the lymphatic glands, and in the liver, his conclusions are that, ‘‘ Notwithstanding very careful study and research made on a certain number of specimens, Ze has not found a single bacil- lus.”

The experiment was carried on with a number of medical men and veterinarians as witnesses, and it is difficult to accept that they are all deceived or mistaken, and yet a few to whom I have asked a verbal opinion about the subject, seem to be rather prepared to ridicule it.

MALLEIN AS A DIAGNOSTIC.—By the suddenness of its ap-

778 EDITORIAL.

parition, the rapidity of its progress, the large losses that it creates, glanders may be considered as the most serious conta- gious disease of solipeds, and every means to discover and con- trol it is to be resorted to.

Mallein has served very fortunately in doubtful cases and even in those that may be called entirely unsuspected, and yet, while it no longer needs any voice to proclaim its advantage, there is one indication that in practice it has failed to fill, viz.: the space of time which separates two consecutive tests, and during which the disease may appear, without it being possible to suspect. As mallein cannot be injected daily, not on account of the possible accoutumancy of the organism, but by the difh- culties of its application, one is necessarily unable to obtain in- formation on the concealed development of the disease during the three or four weeks that elapse between the first and the second malleination.

It is this vaccuum that Mr. Mouilleron has tried to fill in controlling the hyperthermia observed in initial glanders and hence its diagnostic value.

* * oa

For some time he has made observations, which can be briefly resumed as follows: When in a stable containing a cer- tain number of horses, some are found affected or suspicious, these are isolated, and all measures of disinfection being taken, all the other horses have their temperature taken every day at the same hour before having drank or eaten. This temperature is registered carefully, and if during the time that elapses between two malleinations, without appreciable cause (lameness, colics or any other ailment) hyperthermia appears and lasts for several days, there is no doubt that one is in the presence of the con. cealed evolution of glanders. The diagnosis is always confirm- ed by the results of the second malleination or the appearance of unmistakable clinical signs of the disease. But if the tem- perature remains normal, without variation, the conclusion is that the horses are healthy and the second test with mallein is

negative.

——-«

EDITORIAL. 779

This application of thermometry may not be new, it is true ; but its practical application was worthy of record; and if St. Cyr has insisted on this value of the thermic reaction in the be- ginning of the infection, when he said that ‘although there were often absence of local lesions, the thermometer would towards the third or fourth day of the infection rise to 40° C. and more,” Nocard and Leclainche have also made similar re- marks and insisted on them in their work, ‘‘Microbian Diseases.”

* . *

This question of the hyperthermy by mallein has also been treated lately by Prof. Vallée in a communication at the So- ciété Centrale, which related to the observations of five horses suffering with chronic glanders, which presented a slight sub- acute attack and had failed to react to mallein. The test had been applied with care, the temperatures taken regularly with the same thermometer, the mallein was perfect, and yet the or- ganic reaction was absent ; there was no local reaction, no ele- vation of temperature, and yet at the post-mortem of the five horses glanders was made evident by the nature of the lesions, by the bacteriological study and the inoculations of the lesions,

But notwithstanding this negative answer to mallein, must it lose any of its high diagnostic value? The answer is cer- tainly : No. Its inoculation will always be the best of our means of diagnosis, and if, by chance, it may not give any indication on horses that carry deep and subacute lesions, it gives the most satisfactory results in cases of latent glanders, without external clinical signs, results described by Nocard and Leclainche as “a complete and characteristic reaction, viz., hyperthermy of 1.5° at least and a manifest organic reaction.”

a " *

INTESTINAL CONGESTION Not DUE TO THROMBOSIS.—In- testinal congestion or apoplexy of horses, localized as it gener- ally is to the large intestines, is characterized by a series of lesions well known—such as hemorrhagic cedemas of the coats of the organ, cedema which may reach several centimetres in thickness ; and, again, the mucous and submucous membranes

780 EDITORIAL.

are transformed into a soft mass, kind of jelly, of a dark red color. There is also blood that has escaped in the intestine and a rosy serosity more or less abundant, collected in the layers of the peritoneum forming the meso-colon. And finally the lym- phatic glands of the large colon are hemorrhagic. The etiology of this serious and so often fatal affection is rather obscure, and its pathogeny is generally considered as related to the oblitera. tion of one of the arteries of the intestine by an embolism in one of the many ramifications of the main colic arteries. It is true, however, that a little careful thinking would easily upset the theory and that a consideration of the very anatomical disposition of the left and right colic arteries will be sufficient toshow the error of this admitted pathogeny. Yet the belief in its correct- ness is so strong that it would ‘seem impossible to demonstrate the error if it was not for the proof that can be obtained by the experimental method.

This Prof. Coquot, of Alfort, with his assistant, have resorted to, and on one animal they ligated one of the colic arteries, watched for the results and made known the lesions found at the post-mortem. As far as the operation went it was a success, the subject being chloroformed and the manipulations strictly aseptic. The animal was kept under observation for seven days, and during that time never seemed to be in more perfect health. At the post-mortem a slight local adhesive peritonitis was found, and with it a very limited hypervascularisation of the peritoneum at the point where the ligatures of the artery had been applied. The mucous membrane of the intestine was absolutely normal. The colic artery presented, between the two ligatures which had been applied on its course, a fusiform en- largement containing a large clot of black blood, surrounded by a grayish thrombus obliterating the artery. The microscopic examination of the condition of the artery demonstrates the complete obliteration of the artery.

In the presence of the results obtained by this experiment, the authors present the following conclusion, which for them is based on observation, reasoning and experimentation: The

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EDITORIAL. 781

intestinal congestion of horses is not of thrombo-embolic origin. Another old belief passed off. * 5 *

RADIAL PARALYSIS IN CATTLE.—Judging from the small number of observations on record, it seems as if paralysis of the radial nerve in cattle is comparatively rare. Indeed, if the cases observed in horses are quite numerous, the manifestations are well known, but investigations into veterinary literature dis- closes but few cases of it in cattle, whether in European or American periodicals. Dr. Wyssman, in the Wochenschrift sur Thierhetlkunde, making allusion to this, mentions the fact that Carsten Harms reported a case in 1871, which was an incom- plete paralysis in a cow, and in which the animal recovered in 14 days without treatment. Again, Albrecht, during 27 years, saw but two cases of complete paralysis, in which recovery took place after three months only. Two other cases were reported also—one by Lungwitz and "the other by Bru.

The etiology is incomplete and uncertain. It was observed in two cows after parturition. The disease seems to manifest itself in two forms. It is complete or incomplete. In the former the symptoms observed are as follows: at rest, there is extension of the shoulder joint and flexion of all the other articulations of the leg. The elbow is carried outwards away from the body ; the toes are flexed with the anterior wall resting on the ground. The shoulder is carried slightly forward. ‘The affected leg is unable to carry the weight of the body, and when the animal puts it on that leg, all the joints flex down. ‘The olecranon muscles, extensors of the forearm, are all relaxed. According to Wyssman, all the sensibility of the skin is gone. In the in- complete paralysis, the position of the shoulder is normal when the animal is at rest, but while walking there is a marked flex- ion at the knee and a sudden jerky throwing of the weight of the body on the sound leg. There is also a marked diminished sensibility on the tract of the nerve. In the case recorded by Dr. Wyssinan, which he considers as one of complete paralysis, the symptoms were those ordinarily observed, with the excep-

782 EDITORIAL.

tion that the sensibility remained completely normal. This he underlines. But it must be remembered that this continuation of the skin has already been observed by others, and consequent- ly its absence or presence cannot be of great value. The treat- ment recommended in this case consisted in stimulating frictions made with a liniment over the paralyzed muscles. An improve- ment was noticed after a few days, but it took weeks and inonths before the animal could be considered as recovered, the long convalescence being due to the excessive atrophy of the olecranian muscles. ok o *

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.—As I am out of town, I have not re- ceived all the journals, papers, books and communications that probably have been sent to me; they will receive their acknowl- edgment later on. For the present, however, I have had in hand the Kansas City Veterinary College announcement, which came with four numbers of the bulletin, a quarterly published by the said institution, and in which I find recorded some interesting reports which might have a wider publication. |

Our friend, Dr. W. H. Dalrymple, has favored me with a bulletin of the agricultural station of the Louisiana State Uni- versity, where I read the ‘‘ Results of Further Experiments with Nodule Disease of the Intestines of Sheep,” or the Bare lot method of raising lambs.”

In another abstract of the work done in the laboratory of

veterinary physiology and pharmacology, under the direction of -

Dr. P. A. Fish, there are reprinted three serious articles, one on “The Effect of Molasses Feeding on Horses at Rest”; a second on ‘The Source of Mucin in the Urine of the Horse,” and a third on “The Effect of Certain Drugs upon Metabolism as Determined by Urinary Examination.” And finally in Zhe Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, among lots of matters relating to agriculture, there is an illustrated long paper by D. Hutcheon, M. R.C. V.S., Colonial Veterinary Surgeon, with the following, which is not without interest :

‘“A SUCCESSFUL OPERATION ON AN OSTRICH.—TZo the

a ae ee ee ae ee ee lO Olle mr lll

EDITORIAL. . 783

Editor, Agricultural Journal.—Sir:—Noticing a six-months’- old ostrich chick not eating, I thought it sick, and dosed it sev- eral times. The bird did not appear to be sick with any disease, but held its head and neck very erect, and seemed to be in pain. I kept a good watch on the bird for five days; by then it was reduced from a plump body to askeleton. I examined the neck and throat severai times, but could not notice the least indica- tion of any stoppage. Having concluded there must be a stop- page in the food passage where the throat empties in the stomach, I decided to operate by cutting a gash in the throat as near the body as possible. Having located the food passage, I opened it by another gash large enough to put in the hand, when I felt a large pineapple crown. ‘Thrusting in again, I took out a piece of rib bone about three inches long, with a very sharp point at one end. This had stuck fast in the side of the:food passage just where it emptied in the stomach, and had stopped the pine crown from going any further. Mortification had set in around the wound. After putting vaseline and permanganate of potash into the wound, I sewed both the cut places up separately and dosed the bird with sweet oil, and let it go. Half an hour after it ate a little damp bran, and has completely recovered. It is now in good condition again. I may state that I don’t consider an ostrich swallowing a pine crown any way injurious; the fast bone was the cause of thetrouble. Will you publish this for the

benefit of other ostrich farmers ?— Yours &c., CHAS. SPARROW.” x

7 r PARIS, September 25, 1905. VIII. INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY CONGRESS. My chronicle for November left here ten days ago, but as I am anx- ious to have the readers of the REVIEW get some information in relation to the Budapest meeting, different from that which forms the body of my last letter, I take the chance of sending this at this late day with the hope that it may be in time for the November issue. As there will be more opportunities to write about the Congress later, I will to-day only give you the conclu- sions adopted by the Congress relating to tuberculosis and gland- ers as being the most important. They read as follows. Prophylaxy of Tuberculosis in Domestic Animals. “1, The struggle against tuberculosis is an urgent necessity, not only on account of the economical losses resulting from

|

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Se ee 6

784 EDITORIAL.

it, but also on account of the danger of transmission to man.

‘‘2, It is indispensable that the fight should be carried on freely by the owners of animals (voluntary struggle), and that it receives a general application by the slaughtering of dangerous subjects and by vigorously avoiding the contamination of calves and of healthy adults.

“The struggle against tuberculosis must receive an official help by having instruction given to the agriculturists upon the nature of tuberculosis, its mode of infection, the importance of tuberculination, and besides be supported by official subventions.

‘3. The struggle against tuberculosis by official and obliga- tory measures is desirable everywhere. Carried out wisely, it may arrest the ulterior extension of the disease and bring about its progressive disparition.

“Tt demands slaughtering at short notice, of animals affected with tuberculosis at a dangerous degree (specially in cases of mammary, uterine, intestinal or pulmonary tuberculosis, accom- panied with loss of flesh), with indemnity paid to the owners by public funds, and again the forbiddance of taking skimmed milk out of cooperative dairies until it is sterilized.

Vaccination Against Tuberculosis in Bovines.

‘The VIII. International Congress begs the governments of the various States to put at the disposition of whom has the right sufficient funds to make extensive researches upon the value of prophylactic vaccination against tuberculosis of bovines, in the various conditions of agricultural practice.

‘“‘ Until definite determination of the limits of the efficacy of prophylactic vaccination, the application of sanitary measures, already successful, remains always necessary.

Uniform Principles to Estimate the Reaction of Tuberculin.

“y, The preparation and distribution of tuberculin ought to take place under the control of the State.

‘‘2, Only bovines whose temperatures at the time of the injection do not go beyond 39.5°C., ought to be tested with

tuberculin. ‘3, In all bovines whose temperatures do not go beyond

EDITORIAL. 785

39.5°C. at the time of the injection of tuberculin, all elevations of the body temperature above 40°C., ought to be considered as positive reaction.

‘4, All elevations of temperature above 39.5°C. to 4oC., ought to be considered as suspicious reaction and appreciated ac- cordingly.

Uniform Principles to Estimate the Reaction with Mallein.

““y, To assert that a reaction produced by mallein as a diagnostic, confirmative or detector, it must have the characters -of a typical reaction.

“2. By typical reactton must be understood thermical ris- ings of two degrees at least, which go beyond 40°C., and which generally present, in the first day, an arrest or two risings and again a more or less elevated ascension in the second day and even sometimes in the third day, accompanied also with a local and general reaction.

“3. All thermic risings below 40°C. and the great atypi- cal reaction require another verification.

“4, Ascending, progressive thermic reaction is an indica tion of glanders, although it may not be the ordinary type of the diagnostic reaction.

‘5. The formation of the typical local swelling at the point of injection is a sure proof of the existence of glanders, even with the absence of increase in the temperature and with- out the general organic reaction.

“6, All malleined horses, which have reacted or not, must always be submitted twice to the test in a lapse of time of 10 to 20 days.

‘“7, The preparation of mallein shall be allowed only to scientific institutions in the State or to places authorized and controled by her. :

“8. To appreciate all the value of mallein and find out the points still unexplained of its action, the Congress asks that governments shall appoint a committee to carry on this work.” A. L.

786 EDITORIAL.

DR. SALMON’S SUCCESSOR.

The profession of the country is much exercised over the vacancy now existing at the head of the Bureau of Animal In- dustry, and the best means of preserving this important position to the veterinary profession, not only on account of the dignity and prestige which it bestows, but for the more patriotic consid- eration of the best interests of the live-stock industry and the general welfare of the country. That this branch of the gov- ernment has risen to the very highest rank and outstripped all similar bureaus in the world under the wise guidance of a vet- erinarian ; that it has given more in return to the citizens than any other department; that its regulations for transatlantic transportation yearly save millions of dollars to shippers in re- duced insurance and in mortality of transported animals; that the work of its scientists in the laboratories and the field have made plain the etiological factors in many mystifying diseases ; are merely a few of the considerations which make it appear un- grateful and unreasonable for certain stock papers to allege that the interests of the live-stock industry demand a layman at the head of this scientific bureau. Of course, under existing condi- tions such a step is impossible, as the organic law is mandatory that the Chief of the Bureau must be a veterinarian, but it is understood upon good authority that an effort is being organ- ized by some of the large ranch owners—mostly those who have been forced to obey the wise regulations of the department—to importune Congress to change this clause. If this were to be accomplished it would be a serious blow to a profession which has had to fight its way step. by step to all the glory which now surrounds it, and it would be doubly unjust were this to be per- mitted, for in this case it would be shorn of honors which it has fairly won through its intrinsic worth and persistent efforts. But political experiences do not respect justice, or even the plain interests of the country, and the veterinary profession is again called upon to fight to hold the ground which its hard work has gained for it. It would seem to be unnecessary for the REVIEW

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EDITORIAL. 787

to urge upon its readers the absolute necessity for a determined effort to hold this position against the sordid greed of those whose interests would be enhanced at the expense of the national wealth, for their familiarity with the great benefits which are flowing to the country through its magnificent operation are well known to all professional men. But a crisis now exists which demands of évery veterinarian the spreading of this information among those who do not know the dangers lurking in the pro- posed action of the interested stockmen. Every Congressman should be seen by some loyal and earnest veterinarian, who should make them acquainted with the Bureau’s splendid record, and secure from him a pledge to defeat any legislation looking toward a change in the act by which the Bureau was brought into existence in 1883.

One of the greatest weapons in the hands of the profession to-day is the opportunity to assure the country that the demand of the stockmen for a broad-gauged man of affairs at the head of the Bureau can be met without changing the law; that there are men within our ranks who are as capable of administering its affairs in all its ramifications as there are without, with the ad- ditional accomplishment of possessing a thorough understanding of the dangers to be safeguarded by the importation of animal scourges from other lands as well as the control and sup- pression of those diseases which decimate our herds and flocks at home.

The selection of Dr. Salmon’s successor is now receiving earnest consideration by the Secretary of Agriculture, who has assured a committee of veterinarians sent to Washington by a meeting of prominent members of the profession from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, that he was heartily in favor of appointing no one tothis important scientific post except a scientific veterinarian. He urged the committee to have the veterinary profession name its best man, to furnish data concerning his qualifications, and the committee left his presence thoroughly impressed with the sincerity of his express- ed intention.. The committee reported these facts back to a

788 EDITORIAL,

meeting of its sponsors, and it was deemed best to call upon the President of the American Veterinary Medical Association to start some movement to get an expression of the judgment of the organized profession of the country. Accordingly a call was issued for a meeting of the Executive Committee at Phila- delphia, Pa.,on Wednesday, October 25, and the response to that call should be an inspiration to every man in the country to do all in his power in the presentemergency. Laying aside all personal considerations, the members started for the designated place from all sections of the country—from far-away Montana, Minnesota, Michigan, Tennessee, while every member living in States lying close by was in hand to do his share. The situa- tion was thoroughly discussed by all, and it resulted in the send- ing forth of a letter to each member of the A. V. M. A. explain- ing the gravity of the situation, with a request that he forward his first, second, and third choice for the position. It is hoped that by the time this number of the REVIEW reaches its readers every vote of the membership will have been counted, and the Secretary of Agriculture made acquainted with the profession’s estimate of the quality of the man who should fill the important position of Chief of the Bureau of Animal In- dustry.

After the Executive Committee had finished this phase of the subject a number of veterinarians not members of the com- mittee, but drawn there by their interest in the matter, were in- vited into the room to discuss the best methods of combatting the expressed intention of certain persons interested in the live stock industry to secure a change in the law whereby a layman might be placed at the head of the Bureau. Vigorous and im- mediate action was advised, and a circular letter was issued to a list of more than eight thousand veterinarians in the United States appealing to them to wait upon their congressmen and urge them to use their best efforts to defeat any such legisla- tion.

It is to be hoped that the prompt and vigorous efforts of the Executive Committee will result in a movement so irresistible

EDITORIAL. 789

that such audacious legislation will not even be attempted, and should it reach its committee that it will never emerge from that ~body to ‘harass the live-stock interests of the country and dishearten as noble a profession as ever struggled for justice.

VON BEHRING’S “CURE” FOR TUBERCULOSIS.

Professor von Behring, the famous German pathologist, who achieved great renown through his discovery of diphth- eria anti-toxin, and more recently of an immunizing serum for tuberculosis in cattle, has again startled the world by announc- ing that he has added to his list of medical triumphs a “cure” for consumption ; but he will not for a year divulge the secret, wishing to reap financial advantages from it for that length of time. Like Prof. Koch, his great reputation commands the at- tention and respect of the world, though the method of using the lay press for transmitting the news to the world in an in- complete state is open to grave criticism by those who love the science of medicine and are jealous of the reputations made by its leadingexponents. It is certainly not in keeping with med- ical ethics for so distinguished a man, one whose slightest inti- mation of a conclusion is taken up with serious concern, to de- liver so incomplete a presentation of a great discovery before a medical congress and permit it to go before the world through the daily press in the same manner as sensational news. It is hoped that it will not share the fate of Prof. Koch’s famous announcement before the London Congress of 1901. Mean- while, the medical weeklies do not applaud his methods, and fear the effect on the science of medicine may be other than en- nobling. Of course, any views expressed on the merits of Prof. von Behring’s discovery are premature and speculative, as his methods are not known and the source of the combatant of the tubercle bacillus is only conjecture.

BACK to the East for the A. V. M. A. in 1906.

790 EDITORIAL.

THE A. V. M. A. GOES TO CONNECTICUT IN 1906.

At the special meeting of the Executive Committee of the American Veterinary Medical Association, held at the Hotel Hanover, Philadelphia, Pa., Wednesday evening, October 25, the names of three cities were placed in nomination as the place for holding the convention of 1906, and each had its advocates, They were New Haven, Conn.; Lexington, Ky., and Kansas City, Mo. After a careful survey of the field and listening to ar- guments in favor of each candidate, the Committee decided that New Haven would be the best point at which to meet, as there appeared, among other reasons, real need of encouragement of the association spirit in the New England States, since the Association was growing much more rapidly in the Western States than in the section which gave it birth and nursed it until it was able to stand alone.

Thus early, we cry: Get ready for New Haven.

LAWS GOVERNING VETERINARY PRACTICE.

We present in this number of the REVIEW a complete 7é- sumé of every State in the Union in relation to the practice of veterinary medicine, showing which have veterinary laws, a summary of their requirements in preliminary education and professional training, licensing tests, registry, executive officer and his address, administration board, and general remarks. This very serviceable and instructive compilation has been fur- nished by Dr. Wm. Herbert Lowe, President of the New Jersey Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners, to whom the profession is indebted. It is the purpose of the REVIEW to make this list free from errors and to keep it up to date by revising and republish- ing it once every year, and the publishers ask the codperation of the executive officers of all boards to note carefully the in- formation given in respect to their respective States, and make whatever corrections are required through change of officers or of the laws.